The upstream industry ﬁnds and produces crude oil and natural gas. The upstream is sometimes known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector.
The midstream industry processes, stores, markets and transports commodities such as crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids (NGLs, mainly ethane, propane and butane) and sulphur. The midstream provides the vital link between the far-ﬂung petroleum producing areas and the population centres where most consumers are located.
The downstream industry includes oil reﬁneries, petrochemical plants, petroleum products distributors, retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies. The downstream industry touches every territory wherever consumers are located and provides thousands of products such as gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber. plastic, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas
asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubber. plastic, fertilizers, antifreeze, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, natural gas and propane.